The Separation action of hydrocyclones is based on the effect of Centrifugal forces created within the cyclone body. In contrast to sedimenting centrifuges, however, hydrocyclones have no rotating parts and the necessary vortex is produced by pumping the fluid tangentially into a stationary cono-cylindrical body.
In principle, however, each hydrocyclones separates particles of the dispersed phase from the liquid (continuous phase) on the basis of density difference between the phases and the separation depends heavily on particle size. Hydrocyclones are used for both Separation of Solid particles as well as a separation of Liquid from other Liquid; for example, separation of Oil droplets from Water as well as separation of Water droplets from Oil.
Motive Power of Hydrocyclone design is the centrifugal force created by the entering Liquid. And therefore two important parameters are velocity of the entering Liquid and radius of the Hydrocyclone. Available pressure drops creates a limitation on entry velocity. Then the size remains the important parameter. Therefore removal of very small solid particles or liquid droplets, smaller hydrocyclone is the design requirement. In such cases a no. of Hydrocyclones are placed in a Cluster.
- Offshore Oil Drilling to clean Seawater.
- Dredging operation to clean water from Sand or Clay.
- Recovery of Catalyst in the oil and chemical industries.
- Separation of sand from sugar cane juice.
- Removal of silt from well water.
- Separation of corrosion products in circulating systems in the nuclear power industry.
- Clean-up of wash water from gas scrubbers for recycling.
- Clean-up of water in car wash system.
- Pre-cleaning of primary sewage sludge (1 to 2%).
- Clarification of seed oil.
- Dewatering of mine backfill.
- De-sliming of minerals prior to flotation; this allows easier flotation and requires the use of less reagent.
- Removal of impurities and ungrounded particles from chalk.
- Recovery of filter aid.
- De-sliming of phosphate rock.